Interspecies gene flow is a key evolutionary process for the adaptation of long-lived species to new environmental conditions

Roselyne Lumaret

Resumen

La especiación por hibridación y la hibridación introgresiva entre especies del mismo género se reco- nocen cada vez más como un mecanismo que contri- buye a la generación de novedades evolutivas y a la promoción de amplitud de nicho ecológico. En espe- cies de larga vida caracterizadas por una evolución lenta, el flujo génico interespecífico puede constituir un proceso adaptativo más eficiente que la fijación de mutación. Este supuesto se evalúa a partir de una gran muestra de estudios de casos sobre hibridación natural en las denominadas plantas y animales Matusalén. La longevidad favorece las variables del comportamiento de apareamiento a largo del tiempo y según las condiciones locales, puede explicar las altas tasas de hibridación observadas regularmente en estas especies. En raras ocasiones, la hibridación da como resultado la creación de especies híbridas poli- ploides y homoploides compuestas por individuos que muestran segregación transgresiva de los rasgos parentales. Se ha demostrado que mediante hibri- dación introgresiva, se transfieren frecuentemente grandes conjuntos de nuevos alelos de una especie a otra, a veces codificantes para caracteres adaptativos importantes, aumentando así el potencial evolutivo de las poblaciones afectadas sin alterar la integridad de las especies, haciendo que la hibridación intro- gresiva sea el mecanismo evolutivo más efectivo para responder a los principales cambios ambientales en especies de larga vida. Se aportan sugerencias para mejorar las estrategias de conservación de estas especies mediante la evaluación del potencial evo- lutivo de las zonas híbridas y la identificación de las poblaciones capaces de responder al rápido cambio climático.

Palabras clave

Flujo génico interspecifico; Adaptación; Especie de largo ciclo de vida

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/cdbio.2017.53.05





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